Mongo Beti , also called Eza Boto, pseudonyms of Alexandre Biyidi-Awala (born June 30, 1932, Mbalmayo, Cameroon—died October 8, 2001, Douala), Cameroonian novelist and political essayist.
A member of the Beti people, he wrote his books in French. An essential theme of Beti’s early novels, which advocate the removal of all vestiges of colonialism, is the basic conflict of traditional modes of African society with the system of colonial rule. His first important novel, Le Pauvre Christ de Bomba (1956; The Poor Christ of Bomba), satirizes the destructive influence of French Catholic missionary activities in Cameroon. It was followed by Mission terminée (1957; also published as Mission to Kala and Mission Accomplished), which attacks French colonial policy through a young man who, upon returning to his village with some hesitation because he has failed his college examinations, discovers himself to be not only revered by the villagers for his achievements but also alienated from their way of life.
After publishing another novel, Beti stopped writing for more than a decade. When he resumed, his criticism focused on the colonial characteristics of Africa’s postindependence regimes. Main basse sur le Cameroun (1972; “Rape of Cameroon”), a book explaining the emplacement of a neocolonial regime in his homeland, was immediately banned in France and in Cameroon. Two years later he published the novels Perpétue et l’habitude du malheur (1974; Perpetua and the Habit of Unhappiness) and Remember Ruben (1974). Perpetua is a mystery story of the murder of a promising young woman by the combined forces of backward traditions and neocolonial evils. Remember Ruben and its sequel, La Ruine presque cocasse d’un polichinelle (1979; “The Nearly Comical Ruin of a Puppet”), chronicle the fortunes of several revolutionaries who fight against and defeat a French-backed regime in their newly independent country. Some of Beti’s later novels, including Les Deux Mères de Guillaume Ismaël Dzewatama, futur camionneur (1983; “The Two Mothers