Black Facts for June 25th

1797 - (1797) Prince Hall Speaks To The African Lodge, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Five years after his presentation at Charles Town, Prince Hall again addresses his fellow Masons. In an address delivered to the African Lodge at West Cambridge, Massachusetts on June 24, 1797, Hall challenges those Masons to work for the elimination of slavery and the establishment of full civil rights for African Americans while identifying with the common humanity and desire of all Americans for liberty. The address appears below:

Beloved Brethren of the African Lodge:

It is now five years since I delivered a charge to you on some parts and points of masonry. As one branch or superstructure of the foundation, I endeavored to show you the duty of a mason to a mason, and of charity and love to all mankind, as the work and image of the great God and the Father of the human race. I shall now attempt to show you that it is our duty to sympathise with our fellow-men under their troubles, and with the families of our brethren who are gone, we hope, to the Grand Lodge above.

We are to have sympathy, but this, after all, is not to be confined to parties or colors, nor to towns or states, nor to a kingdom, but to the kingdoms of the whole earth, over whom Christ the King is head and grand master for all in distress.

Among these numerous sons and daughters of distress, let us see our friends and brethren; and first let us see them dragged from their native country, by the iron hand of tyranny and oppression, from their dear friends and connections, with weeping eyes and aching hearts, to a strange land, and among a strange people, whose tender mercies are cruel,—and there to bear the iron yoke of slavery and cruelty, till death, as a friend, shall relieve them. And must not the unhappy condition of these, our fellow-men, draw forth our hearty prayers and wishes for their deliverance from those merchants and traders, whose characters you have described in Revelation xviii. 11-13? And who knows but these same sort of traders may, in a short time, in like manner bewail the loss of the African traffic, to their shame

1971 - Kenny Washington

Kenny Washington , byname of Kenneth S. Washington (born August 31, 1918, Los Angeles, California, U.S.—died June 24, 1971, Los Angeles), one of the first African American college gridiron football stars on the West Coast and one of two black players to reintegrate the National Football League (NFL) in 1946.

Washington was a single-wing tailback at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), from 1937 through 1939, during a period when only a few dozen African American athletes played on marginally integrated teams outside the South. At UCLA he teamed with Jackie Robinson, Woody Strode, and a fourth black player (who was a substitute)—an unprecedented number of black athletes on a single team for that time. In 1939 Washington led the nation in total offense and became the first UCLA player to be named an All-American. Because of his race, Washington’s awards failed to match his accomplishments, however, as he made the second team rather than the first in the major All-America selections, and he was not named to the postseason East-West Shrine Game at all. Each of these slights provoked outrage in the national black press and in the mainstream press on the West Coast, where Washington was both greatly admired and immensely popular.

Washington was also passed over by the NFL, which had not had an African American player since 1933. Instead, he became the biggest star and most popular player in two minor professional leagues on the West Coast, playing for the Hollywood Bears of the Pacific Coast Pro Football League in 1940, 1941, and 1945 and for the San Francisco Clippers of the American Football League in 1944. (In 1942–43 Washington toured military bases with the United Service Organizations, as a knee injury kept him out of active service.) Finally, in 1946, under a threat that the team would lose its lease on the Los Angeles Coliseum, the Los Angeles Rams signed Washington (along with Woody Strode, to be his roommate), ending the 12-year ban on black players in the NFL. By this time Washington had

1979 - Rickey Henderson

Rickey Nelson Henley Henderson is a retired professional baseball player who played for 9 Major League Baseball teams between 1979 and 2003. He was born on December 25, 1958 in Chicago, Illinois. His father left the family when he was two years old and later died in a car accident. His mother remarried a man named Paul Henderson when Rickey was in high school, and the Henley family adopted the Henderson name. He was naturally left handed but he developed the ability to bat right handed, making him one of the rare players who could use both hands skillfully. He graduated from Oakland Technical High School in 1976, where he played baseball, basketball and football and also participated in the track team.

Since childhood, Rickey Henderson had dreamed about playing football for the Oakland Raiders. He even received a dozen scholarships to play football but he turned down each of them in order to focus on baseball, especially as his mother advised him against it. He started his baseball career with the Minor Leagues. He played for different teams, including Boise A’s of the Northwest League, Jersey City A’s of the Eastern League and the Navojoa Mayos of the Mexican Pacific League between 1976 to 1979. In June 1979, he made his major league debut with Oakland Athletics on June 24, 1979.

During his time there he set several records. He was selected as a candidate for the Most Valuable Player Award and won a Golden Glove Award. He became the 3rd player to steal 100 bases in a season in 1980, setting an MLB as well as AL (American League) record. He surpassed this in 1980 by stealing 130 bases, setting a record which has not been broken since. In 1983, he set a historical record by scoring his third consecutive season with 100 runs, 100 stolen bases and 100 bases on balls. This monumental achievement has not been emulated or surpassed since 1900.

In 1985, he was traded to the New York Yankees. He was an immediate hit in his new team, leading the league in most runs scored as well as most bases stolen. The very year he

2013 - Trayvon Martin

Name at birth: Trayvon Benjamin Martin

Florida teen Trayvon Martin was killed 26 February 2012 by George Zimmerman, a 28 year-old volunteer for the area"s neighborhood watch. The incident touched off an intense public debate on police conduct, gun laws and racial profiling. Trayvon Martin was a 17-year-old African American from the Miami area who was visiting his father"s fianceé at her home in Retreat at Twin Lakes, a gated community in Sanford, Florida, a suburb of Orlando. On a Sunday evening around 7 p.m., George Zimmerman called the non-emergency police number to report Martin as someone who "looks like he"s up to no good." Martin, it was later established, was walking home unarmed from a convenience store, having purchased Skittles candy and a can of Arizona Iced Tea. Zimmerman, who was armed with a 9mm pistol, followed Martin briefly, and at some point an altercation ensued. By 7:30, Martin was dead, and police on the scene detained Zimmerman, but released him without arrest after he claimed self-defense. Two weeks later, the Sanford Police Department turned the case over to the Florida State Attorney"s office, who initiated an independent investigation. A recording of the call Zimmerman made to police on the night of the shooting was made public on 16 March, and raised new questions. Conflicting witness reports in the press and the official clampdown on information fueled a media frenzy. Some accused Zimmerman of assuming Martin was a criminal simply because he was a young black man in a hooded sweatshirt (or "hoodie"). Others deemed Zimmerman justified in his actions. Rallies were held around the country for the slain teenager, and "hoodies" were worn in a show of solidarity. Zimmerman ducked publicity while the investigation continued. The United States Justice Department and the FBI also began investigations, based on the possibility that Trayvon Martin"s civil rights had been violated. Florida prosecutors arrested George Zimmerman, and in late April of 2012 he was charged with second-degree murder.

1923 - Nigerian nationalism

Nigerian nationalism asserts that Nigerians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Nigerians.[1] [2] Nigerian nationalism is a territorial nationalism, emphasizing a cultural connection of the people to the land — in particular the Niger and Benue rivers.[3] It first emerged in the 1920s under the influence of Herbert Macaulay who is considered the founder of Nigerian nationalism.[4] It was founded because of the belief in the necessity for the people living in the British colony of Nigeria of multiple backgrounds to unite as one people in order to be able to resist colonialism.[5] [6] The Nigerian nationalists" goal of achieving an independent sovereign state of Nigeria was achieved in 1960 when Nigeria declared its independence and British colonial rule ended.[1] Nigeria"s government has sought to unify the various peoples and regions of Nigeria since the country"s independence in 1960.[1]

Nigerian nationalism has been negatively affected by multiple historical episodes of ethnic violence and repression of certain ethnic groups by the Nigerian government between the various peoples has resulted in multiple secessionist movements demanding independence from Nigeria.[1] However aside from instances of extremism, most Nigerians continue to peacefully coexist with each other, and a common Nigerian identity has been fostered amongst the more-educated and affluent Nigerians as well as amongst the many Nigerians who leave small homogeneous ethnic communities to seek economic opportunities in the cities where the population is ethnically mixed.[7] For instance many southerners migrate to the north to trade or work while a number of northerner seasonal workers and small-scale entrepreneurs go to the south.[8]

Herbert Macaulay became a very public figure in Nigeria, and on June 24, 1923, he founded the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP), the first Nigerian political party.[9] The NNDP won all the seats in the elections of 1923, 1928 and 1933.[9] In the 1930s, Macaulay took part in organizing Nigerian

1956 - Shirley, George Irving (1934- )

George Shirley is an educator, lecturer, and internationally acclaimed tenor whose leading roles in 28 operas with the Metropolitan Opera (“Met”) for 11 seasons helped push open doors on operatic stages for many African American tenors. In 1956 Shirley became the first African American member with the U.S. Army Chorus where, after being urged by his fellow choristers, Shirley decided on a career in opera.  Following Robert McFerrin Sr.’s win of Metropolitan Opera’s “Auditions of the Air” in 1953, Shirley became the second black male to perform there after he won first prize at the Met’s National Council Auditions in 1961. That same year Shirley became the first African American placed under contract with the Met and the first black tenor to sing leading roles there.

Shirley was born on April 18, 1934 in Indianapolis, Indiana. At age four Shirley began performing at church in a musical trio with his parents, Daisy and Irving Shirley, and at age five he won a local talent competition. Irving Shirley went to work for the auto industry in Detroit, Michigan, moving the family there in 1940. During his school years Shirley studied voice at Detroit’s Northern High School, and then won a scholarship to Wayne State University.  After graduating in 1955 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Music Education, Shirley became the first black high school music teacher in Detroit, Michigan. Shirley married Gladys Lee Ishop on June 24, 1956, the same year he was drafted into the Army. The couple had two children, Olwyn and Lyle.

Before making his debut with the Met in October 1961, Shirley continued his musical education at the Tanglewood Music Center, and at Boris Goldovsky’s opera summer school. His first public operatic debut in 1959 was with a small opera company in Woodstock, New York, where Shirley sang the leading role of Eisenstein in Johann Strauss’s Die Fledermaus.  The next year Shirley won the American Opera Auditions and was invited to sing in Italy.  He made his European debut in the fall of 1960 at Milan’s Teatro

1986 - University of the West Indies

Each of these countries is either a member of the Commonwealth of Nations or a British Overseas Territory. The aim of the university is to help "unlock the potential for economic and cultural growth" in the West Indies, thus allowing for improved regional autonomy.[1] The University was originally instituted as an independent external college of the University of London.[2]

Since the University"s inception, students and faculty have been recognized in fields ranging from the arts and sciences, to business, politics, and sports. Notable alumni and faculty include three U.W.I.(Mona) Nobel Laureates, sixty-one Rhodes Scholars, 18 current or former Caribbean Heads of Government, and an Olympic medalist. The university"s cricket team previously participated in West Indian domestic cricket, but now participates as part of a Combined Campuses and Colleges team.

This university consists of three physical campuses at Mona in Jamaica, St. Augustine in Trinidad and Tobago, Cave Hill in Barbados and the Open Campus. There are satellite campuses in Mount Hope, Trinidad and Tobago and Montego Bay, Jamaica, and a Centre for Hotel and Tourism Management in Nassau, Bahamas. The other contributing countries are served by the Open Campus[3] which has a physical presence and Heads of Sites in each of the 18 countries. There are International Programmes for universities in the USA, Canada, China, Japan, United Kingdom, Brazil and Mexico such as University of Toronto, McGill University,Osaka Gakuin University, China University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai University, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Queens University, University of Calgary, Emory University, University of Massachusetts, the University of Guelph, Michigan State University, Yale University, Florida State University, King"s College London, St Andrews University, Northeastern University, Stockholm University, University of California, Sophia University, University of Illinois and Universidad de Quintana Roo.

The university was founded in 1948, on the

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