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Black Facts for February 5th

2009 - The Enduring Emancipation: From President Lincoln to President Obama

For a nation at war over slavery, President Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation was inevitable. Here, we examine Lincolns challenges to introduce a document that became a cornerstone event for communities of all races for generations to come.

Presented by:

Paul Gardullo

Candra Flanagan

Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

Original Airdate: February 5, 2009

You can stay connected with the Smithsonians upcoming online events and view a full collection of past sessions on a variety of topics.:

Abraham Lincolns 1860 Cooper Union Address - Duration: 1:27:52. venompangx 37,701 views

Photographing National Parks - Duration: 1:51:42. B and H 71,303 views

Photoshop Landscape Edit Tutorial - Dramatic and Painterly Effect - Duration: 20:21. The Wanderer Chronicle 1,275 views

Emancipation Proclamation - Duration: 6:23. Madanlei000 214 views

The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery - Duration: 2:06:26. Heyman Center for the Humanities 1,193 views

John Payton at ACS event The Road from Lincoln to Obama - Duration: 6:29. American Constitution Society 470 views

Lincolns Deathbed: Images of a Martyred President - Duration: 1:14:38. Smithsonian Education 511 views

Lincoln at the Turning Point: From Peoria to the Presidency - Duration: 49:30. lincolnarchives 733 views

Senator Barack Obama Speaks About Abraham Lincoln at Museum Dedication - Duration: 5:44. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum 49,517 views

Conversations with History: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery with Eric Foner - Duration: 54:25. University of California Television (UCTV) 24,044 views

Emancipation: James Oakes & Sean Wilentz - Duration: 1:21:14. The Graduate Center, CUNY 2,500 views

1952 - Herbie Hancock

Herbie Hancock was born on April 12, 1940, in Chicago Illinois into a musical family. His father was a government meat inspector and mother was a secretary. Herbie began studying piano at the age of 7, he started his education with classical music. On February 5, 1952, along with Chicago Symphony Orchestra, he played the first movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto No.26 in D Major, K. 537 (Coronation), at the time he was only 11.

Hancock was influenced by Clare Fischer’s arrangements for the HI-Los and Robert Farnon’s orchestral arrangements of standard popular songs. He graduated from Grinnell College in 1960, by that time he was already performing with Coleman Hawkins and Donald Byrd, in Chicago Jazz clubs. In 1963, Hancock received considerable attention when Byrd invited him to join his quintet in New York. He landed on a record deal with Blue Note, where he released his debut album as the head of the band, Takin’ Off. The seminal Watermelon Man, was an original tune with a strong gospel influence through which Hancock got the attention he deserved. His piano style had evolved with time into a high personal blend of blues and exquisite tone. He joined Miles Davis Quintet in May, 1963. Along with working with Davis’s quintet, Hancock composed several tunes which have become jazz standards, including, Dolphin Dance, Maiden Voyage, Cantaloupe Island, The Socerer and Speak Like a Child.

Hancock started with a sextet, his first venture into electronic music. This also included elements of rock, jazz, African and Indian music. This sextet was influenced by Davis’s early fusion recordings. Through this Hancock got more into electronic music and instruments, playing the Fender-Rhodes piano through a variety of signal processors such as wa-wa and fuzz pedals. ‘Headhunters’ was the first on which Hancock used a synthesizer in 1973. It became the largest selling jazz album in history.

He recreated Miles band without Miles with V.S.O.P Quintet. Hancock’s single Rock it won the Grammy for best R&B Instrument whereas

1934 - Hank Aaron

Hank Aaron is a popular retired African American professional baseball player. He is known for playing in the Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1954 to 1976 and was ranked fifth in 100 Greatest Baseball Players list. He made his reputation by hitting over 24 home runs every year.

Henry Louis Aaron was born on February 5, 1934 in Mobile, Alabama to Estella and Herbert Aaron, Sr. One of his seven siblings, Tommie Aaron, also joined Major League Baseball. Aaron grew up in a poor family and could not afford actual baseball equipment. Thus he practiced with sticks and bottle caps and later made himself a bat and ball out of junk material he found on the streets. He studied at Central High School and since the black schools did not have baseball team he played outfield. One of his strengths was his cross-handed batting which rendered him a power hitter.

At the young age of fifteen, Aaron found himself with the opportunity of having tryouts with the Brooklyn Dodgers. Though, he could not make it in the team. Thereupon, he went on to attend a private high school in Alabama, the Josephine Allen Institute and completed his secondary education. At first he joined the Pritchett Athletics and then an independent Negro league team, the Mobile Black Bears. In 1951, Aaron signed a contract with baseball scout Ed Scott, thus began his minor league career with the Indianapolis Clowns. His outstanding performance garnered him two offers from the New York Giants and Boston Braves. He chose Boston team over New York since they were paying fifty dollars extra and later regretted missing the opportunity to be team mates with Willie Mays with New York team.

Hank Aaron was no exception to the racial discrimination that was flourishing in twentieth century America. He recounted an incident when his team was in Washington D. C. waiting out the rain in a restaurant. After they finished eating, he heard the plates breaking in the kitchen because those were touched by the blacks. If the cutlery was used by the dogs it would have been washed

1992 - Nicomedes Santa Cruz: A Black Public Intellectual in Twentieth-Century Peru

In the following article University of Oregon historian Carlos Aguirre describes the self-taught poet, writer, and folklorist Nicomedes Santa Cruz, one of the understudied black intellectual leaders in Peru and Latin America.

Nicomedes Santa Cruz was, without a doubt, the most important black intellectual in twentieth-century Peru, and one of the most important in Latin America. Yet, his life, work, and legacy remain relatively unknown, except within academic circles and among Afro-Peruvian organizations.

Between the late 1950s and 1992, the year of his death, he was a restless and passionate cultural entrepreneur, folklorist, poet, and playwright. He was in fact one of the most active intellectuals in Peru: he published about ten books in various genres, essays, short stories, and especially poetry (some of them with several reprints of up to 10,000 copies), hundreds of pieces in newspapers and magazines, and dozens of academic articles on different aspects of black history, culture, religion, poetry, oral traditions, music, and religion. He also recorded a dozen albums that sold thousands of copies, directed radio and TV programs, represented Peru in various international festivals, participated in numerous international conferences, and offered poetry readings in festivals and solidarity events in numerous countries.

Santa Cruz also wrote and directed plays and participated in the staging of theater and music performances. His audience and intellectual connections were not limited to Peru. He became acquainted with intellectuals in the Americas and around the world and conducted research and published works on black music and cultural traditions in other parts of the Americas such as Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Panama.

But even more remarkable is the fact that Nicomedes Santa Cruz was a self-taught intellectual who never went to college and only completed elementary school. He was born in 1925 in a modest family that valued and practiced hard work and intellectual effort, but also preserved and

2009 - Public and Private Photography During the Civil War

This session examines a variety of Civil War-related photography with the goal of gaining a greater understanding of how photography was incorporated into everyday lives, and how we value those photographs today as historical objects.

Presented by:

Shannon Thomas Perich

Associate Curator

National Museum of American History

Original Airdate: February 5, 2009

You can stay connected with the Smithsonians upcoming online events and view a full collection of past sessions on a variety of topics.:

Civil War Dead at Petersburg, VA - Duration: 7:41. ReelNostalgia 83,189 views

Stand Your Ground - Duration: 16:01. ShootExperienceTeam 466,368 views

Rare American Civil War Combat Photographs (Updated) - Duration: 3:52. Chubachus 6,581 views

Why is the South Obsessed with the Civil War? - Duration: 20:09. History With Hilbert 49,485 views

Rare Civil War Combat Photographs - Duration: 3:21. Chubachus 41,348 views

The Civil War in Four Minutes: Battlefield Death - Duration: 3:47. Civil War Trust 75,329 views

What If The South Had Won The Civil War? - Duration: 5:21. LifesBiggestQuestions 199,939 views

I Just Found A Complete Civil War Cavalry Carbine! - Duration: 3:29. Aquachigger 1,222,929 views

Civil War Era Glass Plate Photography Demonstration - Rob Gibson - Duration: 5:52. C-SPAN 9,496 views

Rare Photographs of the American Civil War: Part 2 - Duration: 5:12. Chubachus 43,093 views

3D Stereoscopic Photographs of Union Navy Gunboats During the Civil War - Duration: 2:25. Chubachus 1,247 views

Guns Of The Civil War - Duration: 44:32. ThoughtTraveler 200,844 views

Civil War Photography - Duration: 3:40. thachsa18 430 views

Blood and Glory The Civil War in Color