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Black Facts for October 20th

1963 - Jackson, Rev. Mance (1931-2007)

Open housing was one of the most prominent goals of the Seattle, Washington civil rights movement in the 1960s.  Up to the early 1960s African Americans in Seattle were almost completely restricted to housing in the Central District of the city. Housing restrictions were not based on laws but were socially enforced by both homeowners and real estate agents through racially restrictive housing covenants and in some cases violence and intimidation. In 1961 Seattle blacks lost the legal basis to challenge residential discrimination when the Washington State Supreme Court ruled in O’Meara v. WSBAD (Washington State Board against Discrimination) that the 1957 Washington Civil Rights Act did not apply to real estate transactions involving Federal Housing Authority (FHA) loans.  Since the vast majority of loans were FHA guaranteed, the ruling effectively eliminated legal protection from racial discrimination in housing transactions.

Much of the Seattle African American community now united behind the Central Area Civil Rights Committee (CACRC) to challenge housing and other types of discrimination.  Inspired by the tactics of Southern protesters, a new militant group of activists embraced those tactics for Seattle.  Reverend Mance Jackson, minister of the Bethel Christian Methodist Episcopal Church was a part of this new local group. Jackson was one of many activists frustrated with the slow, quiet attempts by some more liberal Seattleites to relocate blacks outside of the Central District. He and others saw public civil disobedience as a faster means to achieving their goals.

In 1962 Seattle Mayor Gordon Clinton and his Committee on Minority Housing recommended a fair housing ordinance and it appeared the issue was finally getting more attention. However nearly a year later the Mayor and city council had failed to take any action so on July 1st, 1963 Rev. Mance Jackson, along with Rev. Samuel McKinney, led a 400 person protest march from Mt. Zion Baptist Church (in the Central District) to City Hall. The march was

1971 - Snoop Dogg

Snoop Dogg is an American rapper who is famous for his gangster image and rap meets reggae style of music. He was born Calvin Broadus on October 20, 1971 in Long Beach, California to Beverly Broadus and Vernall Varnado. His father was a war veteran and singer, who was rarely present in his life, and Snoop was named after his stepfather, Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Sr. He was nicknamed “Snoopy” by his mother because she thought he looked like the dog in the cartoon “Peanuts”.  He began singing and playing the piano at an early age for his local Baptist church, and also began to rap as early as 6th grade.

After high school, Snoop was arrested for possession of cocaine and was also likely a member of a violent gang, although he denies this. After being in and out of jail for three years, Snoop decided to focus his energies on music. Along with his cousins and friend Warren G., he started recording homemade tapes and formed a group called 213. This tape reached the famous rapper Dr. Dre, who was impressed by Snoop’s talent and invited him to audition. Snoop and Dre then collaborated on the latter’s album titled “The Chronic” as well as the title song of the movie “Deep Cover” released in 1992. This gave him invaluable exposure, and the success of Dre’s album also helped to launch Snoop’s own career.

Adopting the stage name “Snoop Doggy Dogg” he went on to launch his own debut album titled “Doggystyle” in 1993 with Dr. Dre’s recording label, Death Row Records. The album reached the No. 1 spot on the Billboard hip hop and Top 200 charts with singles such as “What’s My Name” and “Gin and Juice” which reached the status of top 10 most played songs in the United States. It stayed on the charts for many months, despite controversy about the violent and misogynistic nature of the lyrics. However, his fans felt that his lyrics were real and they could connect with his feelings. His second album, titled “Tha Doggfather” was released in 1996 which reached the No. 1 spot on pop and R&B charts. When his friend and fellow rapper