Patent for a permanent wave machine which could
wave the hair of both white and Black people.
U.S. Patent 1,693,515
Marjorie Joyner was employed by the Madame C.J.
Walker Cosmetic Company and assigned her patent
rights to that comapny. Madame C.J. Walker, born
Sarah Breedlove, invented hair creams to soften
the hair and a hair styling hot comb. She also
developed other lotions and creams for which she
acquired trademarks. U.S. Patent