Blacks fought in the land and water battles of the War of 1812. A large number of Black sailors fought with Matthew Perry and Isaac Chauncey in the battles on the upper lakes and were particularly effective at the Battle of Lake Erie. Two battalions of Black soldiers were with Andrew Jackson when he defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans. Jackson issued his famous proclamation to Black troops at New Orleans on December 18, 1814: "TO THE MEN OF COLOR. Soldiers! From the shores of Mobile I collected you to arms; I invited you to share in the perils and to divide the glory of your white countrymen. I expected much from you, for I was not uniformed of those qualities which must render you so formidable to an invading foe. I knew that you could endure hanger and thirst and all the hardships of war. I knew that you loved the land of your nativity, and that like ourselves, you had to defend all that is most dear to you. But you surpass my hopes. I have found in you, united to these qualities, that noble enthusiasm which impels to great deeds."