Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks separate economic and cultural development for those of African descent in societies, particularly in the United States. Black separatism is a subcategory of black nationalism, stemming from the idea of racial solidarity, and implies that blacks should organize themselves on the basis of their common experience of oppression as a result of their blackness, culture, and African heritage. Black separatism in its purest form, as a subcategory of black nationalism, asserts that blacks and whites ideally should form two independent nations. Black separatists also often seek their original cultural homeland. Black separatists generally think that black people are hindered in their advancement in a society dominated by a white majority.
There are similarities between black nationalism and black separatism. They both aim for the rights of blacks, but there are a few differences. All black separatists are black nationalists, but not all black nationalists are black separatists. Black separatists believe that black people should be physically separated from other races, primarily whites; black separatists would want a separate nation for black people. This is slightly different from black nationalists because black nationalists dont always believe in a physical separation of black people. In some form, black nationalists do believe in separation, but not physical separation. Black nationalists focus more on black pride, justice, and identity. Their belief is that blacks should be proud of their own skin, heritage, and beauty. They also believe that there should be justice for black people especially in America. Examples of black national movement include Nation of Islam and the Black Panther Party. A specific example of a separatist movement is the Pan-Africanism movement.
In his discussion of black nationalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the historian Wilson Jeremiah Moses observes that black separatism, or